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Table 4 Descriptive statistics

From: Concealing social responsibility? Investigating the relationship between CSR, earnings management and the effect of industry through quantitative analysis

Variable Mean Std. Dev. Min Max
EM .0786636 .1380935 4.95e-06 4.001645
CSR −.3896979 2.289873 −9 13
SIC 40.52876 16.04184 10 87
INDUS .8056061 .3957694 0 1
SIZE 6.863589 1.681489 1.600599 13.08138
ROA .0042784 .2197204 −7.582123 1.617011
LEV .4469656 .2730597 .0211989 3.564619
GROWTH −.0631989 .3497316 −1 10.58722
MTB 3.427874 4.415615 −44.39538 50.38522
RD .2625014 .8740478 .0001433 10.60547
BIG4 .9339279 .2484307 0 1