Skip to main content

Table 5 Pearson correlation matrix

From: Concealing social responsibility? Investigating the relationship between CSR, earnings management and the effect of industry through quantitative analysis

Variable EM CSR SIC INDUS ROA SIZE GROWTH LEV MTB RD BIG4
EM 1.0000           
CSR − 0.0057 1.0000          
INDUS 0.0258* 0.1148*** 1.0000         
SIC − 0.0387*** − 0.0912*** − 0.9367*** 1.0000        
SIZE − 0.1917*** 0.0923*** − 0.1885*** 0.1292*** 1.0000       
ROA − 0.2125*** 0.0501*** 0.0410*** − 0.0308** 0.2459*** 1.0000      
LEV 0.0274** − 0.0694*** − 0.1587*** 0.0781*** 0.3360*** −0.1944*** 1.0000     
GROWTH − 0.0615*** − 0.0293** − 0.0512*** 0.0536*** 0.0046 − 0.1049*** 0.0289** 1.0000    
MTB 0.0708*** 0.0790*** 0.0249* − 0.0483*** − 0.0625*** 0.0588*** − 0.0142 − 0.0678*** 1.0000   
RD 0.1398*** 0.0061 − 0.0924*** 0.0590*** − 0.2222*** − 0.4346*** 0.0464*** 0.0884*** 0.0667*** 1.0000  
BIG4 − 0.0623*** 0.0293** 0.0445*** 0.0378*** 0.2319*** 0.0010 0.1148*** − 0.0208 − 0.0097 0.0117 1.0000
  1. * Significant at p < 0.10; ** Significant at p < 0.05; *** Significant at p < 0.01