Skip to main content

Table 8 Robustness check for Model I (EM)

From: Concealing social responsibility? Investigating the relationship between CSR, earnings management and the effect of industry through quantitative analysis

EM = α + β1CSR + β2INDUS + β3SIZE + β4ROA + β5LEV + β6GROWTH + β7MTB + β8R & D + β9BIG4 + ε
Variable Coefficient T P-value
CSR .0002908 1.05 0.292
SIC −.0004179 −3.60 0.000
INDUS −.0218191 −4.74 0.000
SIZE −.0043168 −9.74 0.000
ROA −.0706568 −18.78 0.000
LEV .0044265 1.72 0.085
GROWTH −.0058265 −3.26 0.001
MTB .0008143 5.73 0.000
RD −.0033122 −4.08 0.000
BIG4 −.0091071 −3.54 0.000