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Table 1 Key Meanings of CSR that have been mapped in this study (Meanings in italics are derived specifically from the resource industry)

From: Mapping meanings of corporate social responsibility – an Australian case study

Carroll’s
CSR Dimensions
Definition Key CSR Themes
Economic Reflect business approaches to CSR consistent with company values and need to retain a business case for CSR. This includes facilitating indirect and direct economic benefit. Create Shareholder Value- Maximising profit and benefits for shareholders (Freeman 1984).
Business Case for CSR- Creating a business rationale for CSR aligned to corporate values (Carroll and Shabana 2010).
• Create Shared Value- Providing mutual community and company benefit through CSR (Porter and Kramer 2006).
 •Corporate Citizenship Approach- Aligning CSR to broader society goals without direct business benefit (Waddock 2008).
 •Company Values- CSR as an expression of company values (Carroll and Shabana 2010).
 •Social License to Operate- The need to gain local community acceptance for company operations (Esteves 2008).
 •Identify Risk Versus Opportunities- Identifying and mitigating risk and enhancing the opportunities of resource development (Gamu et al. 2015).
CSR Policy- Developing clear corporate policy on CSR and operationalising this as part of a business case for CSR (Aguilera et al. 2007).
Legal Reflect legal instruments that influence and shape CSR that are external to the corporation. Regulatory Frameworks- Government regulatory frameworks regarding allowing resource development and the level of acceptable risk including on environment and on impacted communities (Michell and McManus 2013).
• Native Title Legislation- Affords Indigenous people rights to say no or negotiate with resource development and receive compensation for impacts (O'Faircheallaigh 2008)
• Agreement Making: The legal agreement made between resource company and Indigenous group with land claim (O'Faircheallaigh 2008).
International Standards: Typically voluntary either industry-based or wider international frameworks around sustainable development or human rights (Cramer 2005).
International Mineral Council: Ten principles of sustainable development (ICMM 2014).
Ethical Reflect ethical considerations that companies need to consider in order to meet stakeholder and broader society expectations. Sustainable Development: Link CSR to the creation of broader sustainable development outcomes
• Triple Bottom Line: Balance economic, environmental and social interests (Dahlsrud 2008).
• Weak Sustainability: Where assets from resource development are converted into other community capitals (Davies et al. 2012)
  Create Long-Term Value: Create long-term benefit for local communities based around building community-based assets (Fordham et al. 2017).
  Sustainable Livelihoods: Create community livelihoods that can last post-resource development (Fordham et al. 2017).
• Strong Sustainability: Where irreplaceable assets are protected from the impacts of resource development (Moran et al. 2013).
  Environmental Protection and Rehabilitation: Protect the environment and where practical rehabilitate it or off-set development impacts.
  Mine-site Rehabilitation: Ensure that mine-site is rehabilitated including aesthetics but also to reduce deleterious off-site impacts (Lamb et al. 2015).
  Cumulative Impacts: Address the cumulative impacts of resource extraction such as impacts on water, biodiversity and also social/economic impacts (Franks et al. 2010).
  Cultural Heritage: Protect the cultural heritage values of the landscape including sites of significance and dreaming trails.
Climate Change: Address climate change through CSR activities, e.g. carbon capture strategies or reduce/mitigate carbon emissions (Allen and Craig 2016).
   Human Rights: Incorporate human rights considerations into CSR, typically aligned to Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Garriga and Melé 2004, International Organisation for Standardisation 2010).
• Rights of Local Communities: Consider rights of impacted communities including mitigating the negative, particularly human rights effects of resource development.
• Indigenous Rights: Incorporate Indigenous rights into CSR including policies such as reconciliation and improving key social and economic outcomes.
• Free Informed Prior Consent: Recognising the right for Indigenous autonomy and self determination: the legal right for local communities, particularly Indigenous communities, to say no to resource development (Owen and Kemp 2014).
   Company Ethical Behaviour: The company acts in an ethical manner, goes beyond regulatory requirements, and shows the capacity for honesty and trust (Garriga and Melé 2004).
Philanthropic (Discretionary /Voluntary) Reflect voluntary aspects of CSR which provide benefit to local communities/environment or broader region, state or nation. Community Development: CSR programs that reflect strategies which facilitate community development and build the assets of communities (Owen and Kemp 2012).
Create a Social Change: Develop CSR strategies which create a social change and shift communities out of poverty through increasing human capacity and skills (Fordham et al. 2017, Gond and Matten 2010).
Embed Company in Community: The company perceives itself as part of the community and becomes involved and integrated in wider community activities to enable community development.
Support Business Development and Employment: A CSR strategy to enable community development is supporting local business development and employment.
Support Educational Programs: A key strategy to support community development and social change is education at a range of levels.
Strategic CSR: CSR that aligns with addressing threats/opportunities at a landscape scale, often in collaboration with stakeholders (Eberhard et al. 2013).
Interaction Reflect business approaches to CSR consistent with company values and need to retain a business case for CSR. This includes facilitating indirect and direct economic benefit. Interaction between Company and Community:
• Engagement & Communication in CSR: Company/CSR agent shows the capacity for two-way engagement and communication with stakeholders/local communities. This enables stakeholders/local communities’ views to be taken into account and company/CSR processes are transparent and inclusive (Moratis and Brandt 2017) .
• Relationship Building and Trust in CSR: CSR means building trust and developing relationships through CSR so that both parties can fully engage and community/stakeholders can learn and add value (Waddock 2010, Walton et al. 2013).
• Collaboration in CSR: CSR involves multi-stakeholder, collaborative approaches helping to determine strategic approaches and linkages to wider benefit. Also enables value adding and maximising use of resources (Buitrago-Franco and Ali 2017; Pesmatzoglou et al. 2014).
Accountability in CSR: Mechanisms of accountability are built into CSR so that there is transparency and the impact/opportunities of programs are understood. This also enables an adaptive management approach to be taken allowing adjustments to be taken to improve outcomes and minimise risk (Okoye 2009).
Empowerment and Self-Determination in CSR: CSR is empowering for local communities (particularly Indigenous) and enables communities to grow and prosper but through their own initiatives and creativity supported by company and/or wider stakeholders (Franks et al. 2013).
Innovation in CSR: An innovative approach is taken to CSR, thinking 'outside the square' and breaking down paradigms. Through new approaches CSR outcomes can be improved and improved, e.g. better links to sustainability (Kinnear and Ogden 2014).